Cocoa Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Extremes in Atwima Nwabiagya North District, Ghana

Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum, David Boansi, Fred Ankuyi, Patrick Padlass Edeafour, Ernest Laryea Okorley, Ebenezer Osei Jones, Stephen Prah, Patrick Rakotomarolahy, Rakesh Sharma, John-Eudes Andivi Bakang


This study examines the adaptation strategies of cocoa farmers to climate extremes. The study multistage sampling technique to sample 400 farmers from 10 communities. Primary data was gathered with the use of structured questionnaire and the data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A significant proportion of respondents have experienced extreme climate events, with drought (73%), flooding (64.25%) and heatwaves (56.75%) being the most commonly reported experiences. The most commonly used adaptation strategies reported are mixed cropping (73.50%), planting improved crop variety (68.75%), and cover cropping (70%). Adopting mixed cropping was influenced by education and access to extension. The drivers of adopting improved plant/seed variety were farm size, number of farms owned by a farmer, access to extension, access to credit and membership in a farmer cooperative. Distance to farm, education extension access and membership in farmer cooperative influences the adoption of cover crops as means to mitigate extreme climate. In the event of flooding, farmers are likely to adapt all the three main adaptation strategies. The promotion of farmer cooperatives should be a top priority for the stakeholders in the cocoa value chain. Top priority should be also given to the breeding of crop varieties that are resistant to extreme climatic conditions.


flooding; drought; climate extreme; adaptation strategies

Full Text:



Abid, M., Scheffran, J., Schneider, U. A., & Ashfaq, M. J. E. S. D. (2015). Farmers' perceptions of and adaptation strategies to climate change and their determinants: the case of Punjab province, Pakistan. Earth System Dynamics, 6(1), 225-243.

Adger, W. N., Huq, S., Brown, K., Conway, D., & Hulme, M. (2003). Adaptation to climate change in the developing world. Progress in development studies, 3(3), 179-195.

Ankuyi, F., Tham-Agyekum, E. K., Aidoo, D. C., Bakang, J.E.A., Amankwa, K., Akowuah, A. K., & Makafui, W. T. (2022). Drivers of knowledge, attitude, practice, aspiration and perceptions of sustainable agriculture standard: evidence from certified cocoa farmers in Ghana. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-economic Sciences, 11(131).

Belay, A., Recha, J. W., Woldeamanuel, T., & Morton, J. F. (2017). Smallholder farmers’ adaptation to climate change and determinants of their adaptation decisions in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Agriculture & Food Security, 6(1), 1-13.

Below, T. B., Mutabazi, K. D., Kirschke, D., Franke, C., Sieber, S., Siebert, R., & Tscherning, K. (2012). Can farmers’ adaptation to climate change be explained by socio-economic household-level variables? Global environmental change, 22(1), 223-235.

Bunn, C., Läderach, P., Quaye, A., Muilerman, S., Noponen, M. R., & Lundy, M. (2019). Recommendation domains to scale out climate change adaptation in cocoa production in Ghana. Climate Services, 16, 100123.

Coulombe, H., & Wodon, Q. (2007, May). Poverty, livelihoods, and access to basic services in Ghana. In Ghana CEM: Meeting the challenge of accelerated and shared growth (pp. 1-86). Washington, DC: World Bank.

Di Falco, S., Yesuf, M., Kohlin, G., & Ringler, C. (2012). Estimating the impact of climate change on agriculture in low-income countries: Household-level evidence from the Nile Basin, Ethiopia. Environmental and Resource Economics, 52, 457-478.

Ebi, K. L., Vanos, J., Baldwin, J. W., Bell, J. E., Hondula, D. M., Errett, N. A., ... & Berry, P. (2021). Extreme weather and climate change: population health and health system implications. Annual review of public health, 42(1), 293-315.

Feng, X., Liu, M., Huo, X., & Ma, W. (2017). What motivates farmers’ adaptation to climate change? The case of apple farmers of Shaanxi in China. Sustainability, 9(4), 519.

Fosu-Mensah, B. Y., Vlek, P. L., & MacCarthy, D. S. (2012). Farmers’ perception and adaptation to climate change: a case study of Sekyedumase district in Ghana. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 14, 495-505.

Greene, W.H., & Hensher, D.A. (2010). Modelling ordered choices: A primer: Cambridge University Press.

Huang, J, Jiang, J, Wang, J and Hou,L. (2014). Crop Diversification in Coping with Extreme Weather Events in China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2014, 13(4): 677-686. Science Direct.

IPCC (2001). Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2001

Jung, G., & Kunstmann, H. (2007). High-resolution climate modelling for the Volta region of West Africa, journal of. Geophysics Research, 112, D23108.

Khanal, U., Wilson, C., Hoang, V. N., & Lee, B. (2018). Farmers' adaptation to climate change, its determinants and impacts on rice yield in Nepal. Ecological Economics, 144, 139-147.

Khanal, U., Wilson, C., Rahman, S., Lee, B. L., & Hoang, V. N. (2021). Smallholder farmers’ adaptation to climate change and its potential contribution to the UN’s sustainable development goals of zero hunger and no poverty. Journal of Cleaner Production, 281, 124999.

Laube, W., Schraven, B., & Awo, M. (2012). Smallholder adaptation to climate change: dynamics and limits in Northern Ghana. Climatic change, 111, 753-774.

Laux, P., Kunstmann, H., & Bárdossy, A. (2008). Predicting the regional onset of the rainy season in West Africa. International Journal of Climatology: A Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 28(3), 329-342.

Luni, P. I. Y. A., Maharjan, K. L., & Joshi, N. P. (2012). Comparison of adaptive capacity and adaptation practices in response to climate change and extremes among the Chepang households in rural mid-hills of Nepal.

Mika, J. (2012). Weather and climate extremes in light of the IPCC SREX (2011) and beyond. Aerul si Apa. Componente ale Mediului, 25.

Mulenga, B. P., & Wineman, A. (2014). Climate Trends and Farmers’ Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia (No. 186605).

Ndamani, F., & Watanabe, T. (2015). Farmers’ perceptions about adaptation practices to climate change and barriers to adaptation: A micro-level study in Ghana. Water, 7(9), 4593-4604.

Ndamani, F., & Watanabe, T. (2016). Determinants of farmers’ adaptation to climate change: A micro-level analysis in Ghana. Scientia Agricola, 73, 201-208.

Neiburg, O. (2015). Devastating impact of climate change on cocoa can’t be ignored.

Nhamo, N., Donald, M., & Fritz, O. T. (2014). Adaptation strategies to climate extremes among smallholder farmers: a case of cropping practices in the Volta Region of Ghana. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 4(1), 198-213.

Seneviratne, S. I., Nicholls, N., Easterling, D., Goodess, C. M., Kanae, S., Kossin, J., ... & Zwiers, F. W. (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment.

Shaffril, H. A. M., Krauss, S. E., & Samsuddin, S. F. (2018). A systematic review on Asian farmers' adaptation practices towards climate change. Science of the Total Environment, 644, 683-695.

Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Averyt, K., & Marquis, M. (Eds.). (2007). Climate change 2007-the physical science basis: Working group I contribution to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC (Vol. 4). Cambridge university press.

Temesgen, F., Emana, B., Mitiku, F., & Gobana, E. (2017). Application of multivariate probit on determinants of sesame farmers market outlet choices in Gimbi District, Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research 12(38):2830-2835.

Trewin, B., & Vermont, H. (2010). Changes in the frequency of record temperatures in Australia, 1957–2009. Aust Meteorol Oceanogr J, 60, 113-119.

Trinh, T. Q., Rañola Jr, R. F., Camacho, L. D., & Simelton, E. (2018). Determinants of farmers’ adaptation to climate change in agricultural production in the central region of Vietnam. Land use policy, 70, 224-231.

Wainaina, P., Tongruksawattana, S., & Qaim, M. (2016). Tradeoffs and complementarities in the adoption of improved seeds, fertilizer, and natural resource management technologies in Kenya. Agricultural Economics 47:351-362.

Zamasiya, B., Nyikahadzoi, K., & Mukamuri, B. B. (2017). Factors influencing smallholder farmers' behavioural intention towards adaptation to climate change in transitional climatic zones: A case study of Hwedza District in Zimbabwe. Journal of environmental management, 198, 233-239.


  • There are currently no refbacks.